Hyzaar and its Uses
Generic Hyzaar is a combination of losartan (Cozaar) and hydrochlorothiazide and is used for treating high blood pressure.
Generic Hyzaar has also been shown to reduce the risk of stroke in people who have high blood pressure together with an enlargement in the left side of their heart (left ventricular hypertrophy). People with both these conditions may therefore be prescribed Hyzaar to reduce their chances of experiencing a stroke.
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Hyzaar Mechanism Hyzaar Working
Hydrochlorothiazide is a type of medicine known as a thiazide diuretic. Thiazide diuretics act in the kidney, where they increase the production of urine. They work by causing the kidneys to increase the amount of salts, such as potassium and sodium that are filtered out of the blood and into the urine. When these salts are filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, water is also drawn alongside. As hydrochlorothiazide increases the removal of salts from the blood, it also causes more water to be drawn out of the blood and into the urine. Removing water from the blood decreases the volume of fluid circulating through the blood vessels, which lowers the pressure within the blood vessels, i.e. lowers blood pressure. It also decreases the effort required by the heart to pump the blood around the body.
Losartan is a type of medicine called an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It works by preventing the action of a hormone in the body called angiotensin II. Angiotensin II normally acts on special receptors in the body, with two main results. It causes the peripheral blood vessels to narrow, and it also stimulates the production of another hormone called aldosterone. Aldosterone causes salt and water to be retained by the kidneys, which increases the volume of fluid in the blood vessels. Losartan blocks the receptors that angiotensin II acts on, and so prevents its actions. The main result of this is that the peripheral blood vessels are allowed to widen, which means that there is more space and less resistance in these blood vessels. This helps lower blood pressure.
The combination of these two medicines is particularly useful in treating high blood pressure.
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Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take only your next regularly scheduled dose. Do not take a double dose of Hyzaar.
Excess Dose of Hyzaar
Hyzaar in excess dose may show symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, fainting, and fatigue.
Conditions for Storage of Hyzaar
Store Hyzaar at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
Potencies of Hyzaar
Hyzaar Tablets: Hyzaar 50-12.5 mg & Hyzaar 100-12.5 mg
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Food and Drug Interactions with Hyzaar
- If Hyzaar is taken with other medicines that lower blood pressure, the effect on blood pressure may be enhanced. This may cause dizziness and rarely fainting when moving from sitting or lying to a sitting or standing position. Other medicines that reduce blood pressure include the following:
- other high blood pressure treatments (antihypertensives) such as beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, diuretics
- Hydrochlorothiazide can decrease the amount of potassium in the blood. If Generic Hyzaar is taken with other medicines, which can lower blood potassium, this effect may be enhanced. Such medicines include the following:
- other diuretics
- beta agonist bronchodilators such as salbutamol.
Losartan may increase blood potassium levels. If Hyzaar is taken with other medicines that can increase blood potassium, this effect may be enhanced. Such medicines include the following:
- potassium-sparing diuretics such as spironolactone
- potassium supplements
- potassium containing salt substitutes.
- Your blood potassium level should be monitored if you take any medicines that can affect potassium in combination with this one.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as indometacin, may oppose the blood pressure lowering effect of Hyzaar and may increase the risk of side effects on the kidneys.
- Hydrochlorothiazide may increase blood levels of the medicine lithium, and Hyzaar is therefore not recommended for people taking lithium. If it is necessary to take both, your doctor should carefully monitor your blood levels of lithium.
- Hydrochlorothiazide may raise blood glucose levels. People with diabetes should therefore carefully monitor their blood sugar while taking Hyzaar, as the effectiveness of antidiabetic medicines may be reduced. This effect may be enhanced if you are also taking diazoxide. Dose adjustments of your antidiabetic medicine may be required. Discuss this with your doctor.
- Hydrochlorothiazide can increase blood calcium levels. If you are also taking calcium or vitamin D supplements your blood calcium level should be monitored.
- Generic Hyzaar should not be taken within four hours of the following medicines, as if they are taken at the same time they may reduce the absorption of hydrochlorothiazide from the gut:
- The following medicines may reduce the effect of losartan:
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Contraindications with Hyzaar
Hyzaar is contraindicated in the following:
- Allergy to medicines from the sulphonamide group, e.g. the antibiotic sulphamethoxazole
- Decreased liver function
- Moderate to severely decreased kidney function
- Failure of the kidneys to produce urine (anuria)
- Decreased volume of fluid in the body, e.g. due to high doses of diuretics, severe vomiting or diarrhea
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Precautions with Hyzaar
Hyzaar should be used with caution in:
- Elderly people
- Decreased kidney function
- Narrowing of the artery which supplies blood to the kidneys (renal artery stenosis)
- People who have had a kidney transplant
- Severe heart failure
- High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcaemia)
- High levels of fats (lipids) such as cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood (hyperlipidaemia)
- Long-term inflammation of skin and some internal organs (systemic lupus erythematosus)
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Adverse effects with Hyzaar
The adverse effects associated with Hyzaar are:
- Balance problems involving the inner ear (vertigo)
- Severe swelling of lips, face, throat or tongue (allergic reaction called angioedema)
- Inflammation of the liver (hepatitis)
- Skin reactions such as rash or itch
- Disturbances of the gut such as diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain
- Disturbances in the levels of chemical components (electrolytes) in the blood
- Disturbance in kidney or liver function
- Pain in the muscles (myalgia)
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